Punjab State India
Information about Punjab State :
Area : 50,362 sq km
Population : 2,02,81,969; growth rate ( 1991 – 22001 ) : 19.76%
Density per sq km : 482
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 874
Principal Language : Punjabi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places : amritsar ( Golden Temple, Durgiana Temple, Jallianwala Bagh ), Anandpur Rao, Bhakra Dam, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Nangal Dam, Pathankot, Patiala, Ropar ( famous for ruins of Harappan city ), Sangrur, Taran ( Gurudwara in commemoration of Guru Ramdas )
Judicature : Punjab and Haryana have a common High Court at Chandigarh.
Location : Punjab is bound by Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Rajasthan and Haryana in the south, Himachal Pradesh in the east and Pakistan in the west.
Punjab State India History :
Punjab is the sword – arm of India. The Vedic civilisation got its birth and the great vedas were composed ion the banks of its five rivers. During the medieval ages, it decided the fate of various ruling dynasties of the country.
After the downfall of the Mughals and the Marathas, Ranjit Singh established in Punjab a strong state based on patriotism and secularism.
The English captured Punjab in 1849. It was constituted as an autonomous province of India in 1937.
On attainment of Independence, the province was partitioned between India and Pakistan into East Punjab and West Punjab respectively, under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the boundaries being determined under the Radcliffe Award. The name of East Punjab was changed Punjab under the Constitution of India.
On November 1,1956 the erstwhile State of Patiala and East Punjab to form the State of Punjab. On November 1, 1966, under the Punjab reorgaisation Act, 1966, the State was reconstituted as a Punjabi – speaking State Comprising the Districts of Gurdaspur ( excluding Dalhousie ), Amritsar, kapurthala, Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Bathinda, Patiala and Ludhiana, parts of Sangrur, Hosphiarpur and Ambala districts, and parts of Kharar tehsil.
The remaining area comprising as area of 46,620 sq km ( 18,000sq miles ) and an estimated ( 1967 ) population of 8.5 million was shared Himachal Pradesh. The existing capital of Chandigarh was made the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.
Punjab State India Economy :
For about 66 percent of the people of the people of Punjab, agriculture is the mainstay, About 86 percent of the total area of the State is under cultivation.
Wheat, rice, maize, bajra, jowar, gram, barley and pulses are the important foodgrains. Oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton and potatoes are the principle cash crops. The State is surplus in food grains, especially wheat and rice.
Punjab is known for the small scale industries which consist of footwear, machine tolls, bicycles, bicycle parts, sewing machines and parts, plastic goods, pipes, sports goods, nuts and bolts, wood and screws, etc. Seventy percent of the woollen hosiery of India is produced in the State.
The major irrigation and power projects of Punjab are :
Bhakra – Nangal, Ganguwal, Kootla, Harika, Sirhind & Madhopur Beas Link was constructed to transfer surplus water of Ravi to Beas. A similar Beas – Sutlej link project envisages utilization of Beas water for the production of electricity at slapper and then Transfer of its water to Gobind Sagar Lake, Pong Dam on the Beas Sutlej link projects are two important projects.
The important projects. The important thermal projects are Guru Gobinal Singh Thermal Plant at Ropar.
The Ranjit Sagar Dam ( earlier known as Thein Dam ) is in Gurdaspur district. There are domestic and Ludhiana. Amritsar airport has been upgraded to international one.